Led by black activists and a Republican Party pushed left by the blatant recalcitrance of white Southerners, the years directly after slavery saw the greatest expansion of human and civil rights this nation would ever see. In 1865, Congress passed the 13th Amendment, making the United States one of the last nations in the Americas to outlaw slavery. The following year, black Americans, exerting their new political power, pushed white legislators to pass the Civil Rights Act, the nation's first such law and one of the most expansive pieces of civil rights legislation Congress has ever passed. It codified black American citizenship for the first time, prohibited housing discrimination and gave all Americans the right to buy and inherit property, make and enforce contracts and seek redress from courts. In 1868, Congress ratified the 14th Amendment, ensuring citizenship to any person born in the United States. Today, thanks to this amendment, every child born here to a European, Asian, African, Latin American or Middle Eastern immigrant gains automatic citizenship. The 14th Amendment also, for the first time, constitutionally guaranteed equal protection under the law. Ever since, nearly all other marginalized groups have used the 14th Amendment in their fights for equality (including the recent successful arguments before the Supreme Court on behalf of same-sex marriage). Finally, in 1870, Congress passed the 15th Amendment, guaranteeing the most critical aspect of democracy and citizenship " the right to vote " to all men regardless of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude."
The article the first essay about the 1619 project identifies al people of color. The black population was more at risk due to the nation enabling enslavement as a economic tool for a developing country. THey ignored the fact they were human beings. With the 13th 14th and 15th amendments if gave all persecuted groups jews, irish, catholics chinese etc. recourse to the law. Unfortunately the reconstruction was short lived and the southern democrats reasserted their influence with the 1877 compromise. Creating the initiation of jim crowe laws and forcing the feds to allow southern states to deal with black people without federal interference.